The purpose of this consumer education presentation is to introduce practical applications of electrical stimulation [ES] for the management of disabilities encountered in every day clinical settings. The text is written with the intent of helping patients, families, clinicians who are not familiar with ES, insurance carriers and other third party payers and long-term care planners to understand how ES can be effectively incorporated into clinical and home treatment protocols. The term "functional electrical stimulation" implies that the user will have an improvement in daily function as a result of ES.

     General guidelines are provided for each of the disabilities listed below.  Individuals will need to consult with their medical caregivers to consider candidacy for each potential application of ES as well as the treatment protocols for clinical and home implementation.

    Please refer to the General Considerations in the Application of Electrical Stimulation before going to the diagnostic categories of interest. At the end of each section of text you will find selected reference lists for further review.